Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men (Mehta et al., 2016). Regardless of age, within a year of a first acute myocardial infarction (MI), more women than men will die and within 5 years of a first acute myocardial infarction, more women than men will die, have heart failure, or suffer from a stroke (Mehta et al., 2016). Female patients had worse outcomes, higher rates of cardiac shock, heart failure, and in-hospital mortality was higher in women (Luo et al., 2020). The female patients also had higher rate of diabetes, and preferred to take conservative treatment (Luo et al., 2020). Why are the mortality rates higher in women than in men after an acute myocardial infarction?

Direct measurement is measurement of data that can be objective, specific, and straightforward in research (Gray & Grove, 2020). Measuring mortality in this study would be considered a direct measurement. A questionnaire to help develop trends and accurate data would be helpful during the analysis of patient’s charts with an acute myocardial infarction causing death.

  1. What was the patient’s sex? male or female?
  2. What was the patient’s age?
  3. Did the patient have diabetes or hypertension?
  4. Did the patient have a prior MI?
  5. Was mortality within the first year of the MI?


Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Grove’s the Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, Synthesis, and Generation of Evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

Luo, S., Wang, L., Zhan, Y., Li, T., Pang, L., & Lu, H. (2020). 2141-PUB: Advanced age, higher

FPG, and conservative treatment increases in hospital mortality risk in female patients

with acute myocardial infarction: A retrospective study. Diabetes (New York, N.Y.), 69(Supplement 1), 2141.

Mehta, L., Beckie, T., DeVon, H., Grines, C., Krumholz, H., Johnson, M., … & Wenge, N.

(2016). Acute myocardial infarction in women. American Heart Association 133:916-